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Documents of the Coronado Expedition

New Mexico Highlands University

 Ongoing Research and Publication

Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint, who direct the Documents of the Coronado Expedition Project at New Mexico Highlands University, report ongoing work on four research and publishing projects:

1)  Soon to be released by Southern Methodist University Press is Great Cruelties Have Been Reported, the 1544 Investigation of the Coronado Expedition.  In it Richard presents an annotated paleographic transcription and English translation of the lengthy documentary record of investigation of the expedition's treatment of the native peoples of the Greater Southwest, together with detailed analysis of contacts between the Coronado expedition and ancestral patas, Pueblos, Apacheans, Teya-Jumanos, and Wichitas.  The contents of Great Cruelties follows:

CHAPTER 1
       THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
CHAPTER 2
        THE TEXTS AND EDITORIAL PROTOCOLS
                 The Texts
                 Transcription and Translation Protocols
                 Abbreviations Used in this Text
CHAPTER 3
         LORENZO DE TEJADA AND THE BEGINNING OF THE INVESTIGATION
                Spanish Concern Over Treatment of Indians
                The Residencia, Visita, and Pesquisa Traditions
                An Investigation Is Launched
                A Transcript of the Documentary Record
                A Translation of the Documentary Record
CHAPTER 4
        THE FIRST DE OFICIO WITNESSES, FRANCISCA DE HOZES AND ALONSO SNCHEZ
                A Woman and Her Husband
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 5
        JUAN GMEZ DE PARADINAS, THE THIRD DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Tailor, Alguacil, and Billeting Officer
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 6
        DOMINGO MARTN, THE FOURTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Veteran of the Conquest of Mexico
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 7
        JUAN DE CONTRERAS, THE FIFTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                The Head Groom
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 8
        RODRIGO XIMN, THE SIXTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Veteran of the Conquest of Nueva Galicia
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 9
        CRISTBAL DE ESCOBAR, THE SEVENTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Recent Arrival in the New World
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 10
        JUAN TROYANO, THE EIGHTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Professional Military Man
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 11
        RODRIGO DE FRAS, THE NINTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Member of the Advance Guard
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 12
        MELCHIOR PEREZ, THE TENTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                Son of the Previous Governor   
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 13
        PEDRO DE LEDESMA,
        THE ELEVENTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Member of Vazquez de Coronado's Household
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 14
        JUAN DE ZALDVAR, THE TWELFTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                A Captain
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 15
        THE NOMINAL TARGET OF THE INVESTIGATION, FRANCISCO VZQUEZ DE CORONADO
                Investor and Captain General
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 16
        ALONSO LVAREZ, THE FOURTEENTH DE OFICIO WITNESS
                The Standard Bearer
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 17
        THE FISCAL'S ACCUSATIONS AGAINST VZQUEZ DE CORONADO
                The Fiscal Cristobal de Benavente
                A Transcript of the Documentary Record
                A Translation of the Documentary Record
CHAPTER 18
        THE MAESTRE DE CAMPO HELD RESPONSIBLE
                The Penalty Paid By Garcia Lopez de Cardenas
                A Transcript of the Documentary Record
                A Translation of the Documentary Record
CHAPTER 19
          DEFENSE OFFERED BY VZQUEZ DE CORONADO
                Francisco Pilo and The Beginning of Testimony In the Province of Culiacan
                Little-Known Lorenzo lvarez
                A Transcript of the Documentary Record
                A Translation of the Documentary Record
CHAPTER 20
        DIEGO LPEZ, THE SECOND DE PARTE WITNESS
                A Councilman of Sevilla
                And Veteran of the Conquest of Nueva Galicia
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 21
        LUIS DE FIGUEREDO, THE THIRD DE PARTE WITNESS
                Sent to Sonora
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 22
        PEDRO DE TOVAR, THE FOURTH DE PARTE WITNESS
                Captain and Nephew to the Viceroy
                A Transcript of the Testimony
                A Translation of the Testimony
CHAPTER 23
        FURTHER DEFENSE
                Summary of Testimony in Mexico City
                A Transcript of the Testimony Summary
                A Translation of the Testimony Summary
CHAPTER 24
        A FINAL AND DEFINITIVE DECISION
                The Captain General Exonerated
                A Transcript of the Decisions
                A Translation of the Decisions
CHAPTER 25
        PARTISAN TESTIMONY AS SOURCE MATERIAL FOR HISTORY
                The Witnesses as Typical Members of the Expedition
                Distinguishing Status and Vinculos
                Partisan Testimony and Foregone Conclusions
                Cultural Bias and Associational Slant
                Summary of the Testimony Concerning Brutality and Cruelty
CHAPTER 26
         RESULTS AND REPERCUSSIONS OF THE EXPEDITION TO TIERRA NUEVA FROM DOCUMENTARY AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOURCES
                Requerimiento and Response
                Corollary Pressures
                A Sunday School Picnic?
                A New Social Configuration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley
                Transmission of Pathogens, Transplantation of People, and Acquisition of  Knowledge
                Conclusion
AFTERWORD
          APPENDICES
                APPENDIX 1
                     ORIGINS, AGES, AND ARRIVAL OF 115 MEMBERS
                     OF THE EXPEDITION TO TIERRA NUEVA
                APPENDIX 2
                      BIOGRAPHICAL DATA
                APPENDIX 3     
                      GEOGRAPHICAL DATA

2)  Our current major project is publication of the first comprehensive, annotated, dual-language edition of 35 documents of the Coronado expedition.  To be titled 'They Were Not Familiar with His Majesty, Nor Did They Want To Be His Subjects': Documents of the Coronado Expedition, 1540-42, the one-volume documentary edition will include what, since 1940, has been the canon of primary sources for study of the expedition, as well as 14 documents never before available in English.  During spring 2002 we will be doing research for annotations for 'They Were Not Familiar...' at the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla and at other archives in Spain. 

This edition (which should be out in 2004) will dramatically increase the quantity and quality of sources in print dealing with the expedition.  The calendar of documents to be included in the edition is as follows:

        Calendar of Documents

(1) Letter of Vazquez de Coronado to the King, December 15, 1538
        AGI, Guadalajara, 5, R.1, N.5:  15 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(2) Letter of Vazquez de Coronado to the Viceroy, March 8, 1539
        Ramusio, Navigationi et Viaggi, III, 354-355:  1/2 printed page.
        Location of 1556 edition: History Library, Museum of New Mexico
(3) Letter of Vazquez de Coronado to the King, July 15, 1539
        AGI, Guadalajara, 5, R.1, N.6:  7 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(4) Letter of the Viceroy to the King, 1539
        Ramusio, Navigationi et Viaggi, III, 355:  1 printed page.
        Location of 1556 edition: History Library, Museum of New Mexico
(5) Decree of the King, appointing Vazquez de Coronado governor of Nueva Galicia, April 18, 1539
        Antonio Tello, Cronica Miscelanea, Libro Segundo, II, fols. 406v and 407r:  2 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  John Carter Brown Library, Brown University, Providence
(6) The Viceroy's Instructions to fray Marcos de Niza, November 1538
        AGI, Patronato 20, N.5, R.10:  2 1/2 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla and Narrative Account by fray Marcos de Niza August 26, 1539 AGI, Patronato 20, N.5, R.10:  32 1/2 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(7)  Letter from Rodrigo de Albornoz, October 18, 1539
        Tercera Parte, Libro XL, Capitulo I, Historia General y Natural de las Indias, 1547
        Location of original:  Colecciones Munoz y Salazar, Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid
(8) Testimony of Witnesses in Havana regarding fray Marcos' Discoveries,  November 1539
        AGI, Patronato 21, N.2, R.4:  8 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(9) The Viceroy's Appointment of Vazquez de Coronado to Lead the Expedition, January 6, 1540
        AGI, Justicia 339, N.1, R.1:  6 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(10) The King's Confirmation of Vazquez de Coronado's Appointment, June 11, 1540
        2 fol. sides.
        Private collection, Santa Fe, New Mexico 
(11) Testimony of Vazquez de Coronado's Purchasing Agent (Juan Verdejo), 1553
        AGI, Justicia, 336, N.1:  6 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(12) Muster Roll of the Expedition, February 22, 1540
        AGI, Guadalajara, 5, R. 1, N. 7:  24 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(13) Record of Mexican Indians Participating in the Expedition, 1576
        Add MSS 31219, Chronicle of Mexican History to 1576, continued to 1607 (Codice Aubin), fols. 46v and 47r: 2 fol. sides.
        Location of original: Library of the British Museum, London
(14) Hearing on Depopulation Charges, February 26, 1540
        AGI, Patronato 21, N.2, R.3:  12 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(15) The Viceroy's Instructions to Hernando Alarcon, May 31, 1541
        Biblioteca del Escorial, codice &-II-7, Doc. # LXVI  and Doc. # LXVII:  6 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Biblioteca del Escorial
(16) Narrative of Alarcon's Voyage, 1540
        Ramusio, Navigationi et Viaggi, III, 363-370:  13 printed pages.
        Location of 1556 edition: History Library, Museum of New Mexico
(17) The Viceroy's Letter to the King, April 17, 1540
        AGI, Patronato 184, R.31:  6 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(17a) Memorial de Hernan Cortes a Carlos V acerca de los Agravios que le hizo el Virrey de la Nueva Espana, June 25, 1540 AGI signature to be determined (see Documentos Cortesianos, 4:210-5)
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(18) Vazquez de Coronado's Letter to the Viceroy, August 3, 1540
        Ramusio, Navigationi et Viaggi, III, 373-380:  15 printed pages.
        Location of 1556 edition: History Library, Museum of New Mexico
(18a)  Account of Pedro de Alvarado's Armada, 1541
        Tercera Parte, Libro XL, Capitulo II, Historia General y Natural de las Indias>, 1547
        Location of original:  Colecciones Munoz y Salazar, Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid
(19) Formation of Company between Mendoza and Pedro de Alvarado, November 29, 1540
        AGI, Patronato, 21, N.3, R.2:  10 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(20) Anonymous Narrative (Traslado de las Nuevas), 1540
        AGI, Patronato 20, N.5, R.8:  3 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(21) Hernando de Alvarado's Narrative, 1540
        AGI, Patronato, 26, R.23:  8 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(22) Vazquez de Coronado's Letter to the King, October 20, 1541
        AGI, Patronato, 184, R.34:  4 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(23) Disposal of the Juan Jimenez estate, 1542 [copy, 1550]
        AGI, Contratacion, 5575, N.24:  61 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(24) Pedro de Castaneda's Narrative, 1560s [copy, 1596]
        NY Public Library, Rich Coll. no. 63:  316 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Section
(25) Anonymous Narrative (Relacion del Suceso), 1540s
        AGI, Patronato 20, N.5, R.8:  10 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(25a)  Letter from Viceroy Mendoza to Fernandez de Oviedo, October 6, 1541
        Segunda Parte, Libro XXXIII, Capitulo LII, Historia General y Natural de las Indias, 1547
        Location of original:  Colecciones Munoz y Salazar, Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid
(26) Juan de Jaramillo's Narrative, 1560s
        AGI, Patronato, 20, N.5, R.8:  12 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(27) Toribio Benavente's Narrative (Relacion Postrera de Cibola), 1540s
        UT, Austin, Benson Coll., JGI 31 XVI C, fols 123v-124v:  2 1/2 fol. sides
        Location of original:  University of Texas at Austin, Benson Latin American Collection
(28) Juan Troyano's Proof of Service, 1560
        AGI, Mexico, 206, N.12:  5 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla
(29) Melchior Perez's Petition for Preferment, 1551
        UC, Berkeley, Bancroft, M-M 1714:  11 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  University of California, Berkeley, Bancroft Library
(30) Cristobal de Escobar's Proof of Service, 1543
        AGI, Mexico 204, N.14:  40 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo Generiw@"0ivilla
(31) Vcez de Coronado's Petition for Recovery of Encomiendas, 1553
         AGI, Justicia, 336, N.1, fols. 3r-3v:  2 fol. sides.
        Location of original:  Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla

3) At the same time, we have completed editorial work on From the Distance of 460 Years: Contemporary Vantage on the Coronado Expedition. Scheduled for publication by the University of New Mexico Press in spring 2003, this book comprises 17 chapters written by a group of well-known researchers who participated in conference of similar name in April 2000 at Las Vegas, New Mexico and Floydada, Texas. The book reports new and fascinating research regarding the expedition from historical, anthropological, archeological, geographical, environmental, and textual analysis perspectives. They represent many of the ingredients which are contributing to a thorough revisioning of the expedition. The list of contents follows:

Introduction: "From the Distance of 460 Years" Richard Flint and Shirley Cushing Flint

Chapter 1, John L. Kessell, "To See Such Marvels with My Own Eyes: Spanish Exploration in the Western Borderlands."

Chapter 2, William K. Hartmann and Richard Flint, "Who Knew What and When Did They Know It?"

Chapter 3, Shirley Cushing Flint, "The Financing and Provisioning of the Coronado Expedition."

Chapter 4, Richard Flint, "What's Missing from this Picture, The Alarde or Muster Roll of the Coronado Expedition."

Chapter 5, William K. Hartmann and Betty Graham Lee, "Chichilticale: A Survey of Candidate Ruins in and about the Sulfur Springs Valley, Southeastern Arizona."

Chapter 6, John H. Madsen, "Spanish Artifacts, a Trail, and a Diary: An Eighteenth-Century Trail from Sonora to Zuni, New Mexico."

Chapter 7, Ann F. Ramenofsky and David Vaughan, "Jars Full of Shiny Metal."

Chapter 8, Harry C. Myers, "The Mystery of the Buffalo Plains: Coronado's Route from the Pecos River to the Llano Estacado."

Chapter 9, Richard Flint, "Reconciling the Calendars of the Coronado Expedition, Tiguex to the Second Barranca, April and May 1541"

Chapter 10, Panel Discussion, "Bison Hunters of the Llano in 1541, their Identity and Territory."  Donald J. Blakeslee, Douglas K. Boyd, Richard Flint, Judith Habicht-Mauche, Nancy P. Hickerson, Jack T. Hughes, and Carroll L. Riley.

Chapter 11, Nancy P. Hickerson, "The War for the South Plains, c. 1500-1700."

Chapter 12, Donald J. Blakeslee and Jay C. Blaine, "The Jimmy Owens Site: New Perspectives on the Coronado Expedition."

Chapter 13, John Miller Morris, "First Arrivals: Coronado, Hank Smith, and the Old Springs of Blanco Canyon."

Chapter 14, Frank Gagne, "Spanish Crossbow Boltheads of Sixteenth-Century North America, A Comparative Analysis."

Chapter 15, Dee Brecheisen, "Looking at a Horseshoe."

Chapter 16, Maureen Ahern, "Llevando el norte sobre el ojo izquierdo: Mapping, Measuring, and Naming in Castaneda's Relacion de la Jornada de Cibola."

Chapter 17, Felix Barboza-Retana, "Two Conquests, Two Discoveries, and Two Vazquez de Coronado."

4)  Shirley continues her research and writing for a book titled The Estrada Women: the Power of Family Structure in Sixteenth-Century New Spain.  The book deals with the successive generations on influential women in the family of Beatriz de Estrada, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado's wife. For many years these women figured prominently in the political, economic, and religious life of Mexico City and the Viceroyalty of New Spain.  The broad working outline of The Estrada Women follows:

       
Introduction
        What started out as simple wonderment has turned into an odyssey. Little did I know that answering the question "Who was this reportedly young and beautiful wife Francisco Vazquez de Coronado left to pine in Mexico while he traveled to the northern frontier of New Spain? would take me on such a long and as yet incomplete journey to the archives of Mexico and Spain, to points of origin of her parents Marina Gutierrez de la Caballeria and Alonso de Estrada (Almagro and Ciudad Real) and to their haunts and neighborhoods in Mexico City. Over the years the search has shifted focus from Beatriz de Estrada as the prime person of interest to her mother, Marina, her sisters and her children, along with husbands and other relatives. The lens has widened from a single person to a large family network and as such has broadened our understanding of the Colonial society in the first 100 years of Mexican history. By looking at just this one family, pedominantly a family of women, we can see deep into the structure of everyday life.  History is not just a tally of the grand moments, it is much more. It consists of each moment lived by ordinary people in very ordinary ways, which in total define history and provides the matrix for those much studied, "grander" moments.

The Family
        1.      Marina and Alonso
        2.      Their children
The Politics
        3.      Public office (Royal Treasurer and Governor of New Spain)
        4.      Cortez
        5.      Rebellion or not (>Mexico City, 1560s)
        6.      Women
The Land and People
        7.      Encomiendas
        8.      Resources and sources of wealth
The Marriages
        9.      Love or politics
        10.     New World vs Old World choices
The Consequences
        11.     Family ties
        12.     Political allegiances
        13.     Transformation
        14.     Effects on the New World
The Family
        15.     Deaths
        16.     Legacy: grandchildren

 

 

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